Below are selected publications by research topic area.

 

RESEARCH CITATIONS BY TOPIC AREA COMMENT
EFNEP YOUTH EVALUATION
1 Townsend MS, Johns M, Shilts MK, Farfan-Ramirez L. Evaluation of a USDA nutrition education program for low-income Youth. J Nutrition Educ Behavior. 2006;38(1):30-41.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404605000175/abstract
We are very proud of this effort. It is the 1st statewide evaluation of youth EFNEP in the peer-reviewed literature. We also validated USDA’s impact indicator method.

 

2 Shilts M, Smith D, Ontai L, Townsend MS. Evidence to support the use of the retrospective pretest method to measure dietary and physical activity behavior and self-efficacy in adolescents. J Youth Development 2008;3 (1): Article 080301RS002.
http://www.nae4ha.org/directory/jyd/jyd_issue.aspx?id=fbcfc945-47f7-4fe8-84c1-9578059b9c0a
The results of this study gives Youth EFNEP the academic basis for developing evaluation tools for adolescents using the retrospective pre method. Why important? County staff are hesitant to begin the education experience with a pretest. This method saves the pre and post tests for the end of the ed experience.

 

EVALUATION TOOLS:

VALIDATION STUDIES FOR FOOD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST

 

3 Townsend MS, Kaiser LL, Allen LH, Joy AB, Murphy SP. Selecting items for a food behavior checklist for a limited resource audience. J Nutr Educ Behav 2003;35:69-82.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606600432/abstract
Our EFNEP food behavior checklist study funded by USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service.

 

4 Murphy S, Kaiser LL, Townsend MS, Allen L. Evaluation of Validity of Items in a Food Behavior Checklist. J Am Dietetic Assoc, 2001:101:751-756, 761.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B758G-483YFG2-3K&_user=4421&_coverDate=07/31/2001&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059598&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4421&md5=b56846d3dddaca3e8047e258f6931a79
Part of the same Food Behavior Checklist study.
5
Townsend MS, Sylva K, Martin A, Metz D, Wooten Swanson P. Improving readability of an evaluation tool for low-income clients using visual information processing theories. J Nutrition Education Behavior. In press. Using the above study results, we examined ways to improve readability, validity and reliability for low-literate clients. This work is the basis for the final version of FBC evaluation tools cited last page.

 

6 Townsend MS. Evaluating Food Stamp Nutrition Education: Process for development and validation of evaluation measures. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006; 38(1):18-24.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404605000102/abstract
This process for FSNE would be the same for development and validation of EFNEP evaluation tools.
 

EVALUATION TOOLS:

VALIDATION STUDIES FOR MEDIATORS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

7 Townsend MS, Kaiser LL. Development of an evaluation tool to assess psychosocial indicators of fruit and vegetable intake for two federal programs. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2005;37:170-184.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606602431/abstract
This validation paper is about a fruit/vegetable tool for a focused EFNEP and FSNE fruit/veg intervention. Funded by USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service.

 

8
Townsend MS, Kaiser LL. Brief psychosocial fruit and vegetable tool is sensitive for United States Department of Agriculture’s nutrition education programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:2120-2124.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&uid=18060898&cmd=showdetailview&indexed=google
 

This paper is a follow up to the 2005 paper immediately above. The final tool is available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/

 

DEVELOPMENT HEALTHY WEIGHT TOOL FOR EFNEP

9 Ontai L, Ritchie L, Williams ST, Young T, Townsend MS. Guiding family-based obesity prevention efforts in children, Part 1: What determinants do we target? Intl J Child Adoles Health. In press. Funded by an ANR Core Issues grant. This paper and the following represent the research based for Healthy Kids, an assessment tool for pediatric obesity. We were notified this month that USDA will fund the completion of Healthy Kids via an NRI grant.
10 Townsend MS, Young T, Ontai L, Ritchie L, Williams ST. Guiding family-based obesity prevention efforts in children, Part 2: What behaviors do we measure? Intl J Child Adoles Health. In press. Funded by an ANR Core Issues grant. See above.
 

EFNEP ADULT EVALUATION

 

11 Blackburn ML, Townsend MS, Kaiser LL, Martin AC, West EA, Turner B, Joy AB. Food behavior checklist effectively evaluates nutrition education. California Agriculture 2006; 60(1): 20-24.
http://calag.ucop.edu/0601JFM/pdfs/FoodBehavior.pdf
EFNEP TEACHER RECRUITMENT

 

12 Shilts M, Lamp C, Horowitz M, Townsend MS. Eatfit impacts academic performance in mathematics and English: a pilot study. J Nutrition Educ Behavior In press.

¨

This study is important as it is the first to document nutrition education’s impact on academic performance. These results should help EFNEP staff with recruitment of schools.

 

13 Horowitz M, Shilts M, Lamp C, Townsend MS. A standards-driven evaluation of academic performance: an 8-step process for nutrition educators. J Nutrition Educ Behavior In press.

 

This paper should help other EFNEP Coordinators/Directors with developing their own standards-driven evaluation tool.

 

 

EFNEP YOUTH CURRICULUM

 

14 Shilts M, Horowitz M, Townsend MS. An Innovative Approach to Goal Setting for Adolescents: Guided Goal Setting. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2004; 36:155-156.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS149940460660153X/abstractref
We developed this new method for our curriculum Eatfit.
15 Horowitz M, Shilts M, Townsend MS. Eatfit: A goal oriented intervention that challenges adolescents to improve their eating and fitness choices. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2004;36:43-44.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606601280/abstractref
We use this curriculum with 6th-8th grade students in both EFNEP and FSNE.
16 Horowitz M, Shilts M, Townsend MS. Adapting a Diet Analysis Application for an Adolescent Audience. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2005;37:43-44.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606602595/abstractref
We adapted the EFNEP reporting system software for paraprofessionals (i.e. the diet analysis component) for our Eatfit web-based software for adolescents.

 

17

Shilts M, Horowitz M, Townsend MS. Goal Setting as a Strategy for Dietary and Physical Activity Behavior Change: A Review of the Literature. American Journal Health Promotion 2004; 19:81-93.
http://www.healthpromotionjournal.com/mm5/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Store_Code=AHJP&Product_Code=JV19I281&Category_Code=
A review of the goal setting methodological

research base for Eatfit curriculum. Includes a review for adults, adolescents and children.

18 Bell R, Berger C, Cassady D, Townsend MS. Portrayals of Food Practices and Exercise Behavior In Popular American Films. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2005;37:27-32.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B82X5-4K60MBD-4&_user=4421&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059598&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4421&md5=533d827657156264eba94966e4a4ad08
We used the results of this study to support Eatfit’s Lesson 8 on media. The results of this study are being incorporated into the Teacher’s Manual for the 2008 MyPyramid revision.

 

19 Diana Cassady, Marilyn Townsend, Robert A Bell, Mitchell Watnik. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis. International Journal of Beavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity 2006;3:4 (9 March 2006) BioMed Central.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1420320&blobtype=pdf
We used the results of this study to support Eatfit’s Lesson 8 on media.
OBESITY and LOW-INCOME FAMILIES
20 Townsend MS, Love B, Achterberg C, Murphy S. Food Insecurity is Positively Related to Overweight in Women. J. of Nutrition, 2001;131:1738-1745, 2001.
http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1&FULLTEXT=Food+Insecurity+is+Positively+Related+to+Overweight+in+Women&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=nutrition;131/6/1738
21 Crawford PB, Lamp C, Nicholson Y, Krathwohl S, Townsend MS. Food insecurity may be linked to childhood obesity in low-income Mexican-American families. California Agriculture 2007; 61(3):106-111.
http://calag.ucop.edu/0703JAS/pdfs/FoodInsecurity.pdf
An UC ANR Body Weight and Health Workgroup project.
22 Townsend MS. Obesity in low income communities: Prevalence, effects, a place to begin. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106(1): 34-37.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B758G-4HXX56W-8&_user=4421&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059598&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4421&md5=39eb91ae083d909cc185eb962b963f5c
Proposal for a redesign of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) to support the US Dietary Guidelines.
23 Crawford P, Townsend MS, Metz DL, Smith D, Espinosa-Hall G, Donohue SS, Sutherland B, Olivares A, Kaiser LL. How can Californians be overweight and hungry? California Agriculture. 2004;58:12-17.
http://calag.ucop.edu/0401JFM/pdfs/obesity.pdf
An UC ANR Body Weight and Health Workgroup project.
24 Mullally C, Julian M. Alston, Daniel A. Sumner, Marilyn S. Townsend, and Stephen A. Vosti. Proposed Modifications to the Food Stamp Program: Likely Effects and their Policy Implications (Book chapter). In: Obesity: Causes, Mechanisms and Prevention. Elliott Blass, Editor. Sinauer Associates, Inc, Sunderland, MA.

 

This is a follow-up to the JADA 2006 Commentary paper on obesity in low-income communities.
25 Julian M. Alston, Conner C. Mullally, Daniel A. Sumner, Marilyn Townsend, and Stephen A. Vosti. Likely Effects on Obesity from Proposed Changes to the U.S. Food Stamp Program, Submitted to journal 9/3/07.

 

This is a follow-up to the JADA 2006 Commentary paper on obesity in low-income communities.
EFNEP CLIENTS AND FOOD SECURITY
26 Kaiser L, Martin A, Metz D, Nicholson Y, Fujii M, Lamp C, Townsend M, Crawford P, Melgar-Quinonez H. Food insecurity prominent among low-income California Latinos. California Agriculture 2004;58:18-23.
http://repositories.cdlib.org/anrcs/californiaagriculture/v58/n1/p18/
27 Kaiser LL, Townsend MS, Melgar-Quinonez HR, Fujii ML, Crawford PB. Choice of instrument influences relationship between food insecurity and obesity in Latino women. Amer J Clinical Nutrition. 2004;80:1372-1378.
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/80/5/1372?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Choice+of+instrument+influences+relationship+between+food+insecurity+and+obesity&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
An UC ANR Body Weight and Health Workgroup project.
28 Kuyper EM, Espinosa-Hall GB, Lamp CL, Martin AC, Metz DM, Smith D, Townsend MS, Kaiser LL. Development of a tool to assess past food insecurity of immigrant Latino mothers. J Nutr Educ Behav 2006;38:378-382.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606004933/abstract
An UC ANR Body Weight and Health Workgroup project.
29 Kaiser LL, Townsend MS, West EA, Steinberg FM, Joy AB, Brown GR, Feldman NI, Klenk MA, Williams EU, Garrett CL, Martin AC, Olivares A. Focus groups show need for diabetes education among African Americans. California Agriculture. 56: 139-143.
http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3169&context=anrcs/californiaagriculture
30 Kaiser LL, Melgar-Quinonez HM, Townsend MS, Nicholson Y, Fujii ML, Martin AC, Lamp CL. Food insecurity and food supplies in Latino households with young children. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2003;35:148-153.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606601991/abstract
CHILDREN AND FOOD SECURITY
31 Kaiser LL, Townsend MS. Food Insecurity among US Children: Implications for Nutrition and Health. Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 2005;20(4): 313-320.
http://www.topicsinclinicalnutrition.com/pt/re/tcn/abstract.00008486-200510000-00004.htm;jsessionid=H1zcy7hhFcjjSpwxkdV2SdmNzxCf8xK7kZjdwzHvQLmv3CF0yMBC!-1888235131!181195628!8091!-1?index=1&database=ppvovft&results=1&count=10&searchid=1&nav=search
STAFF TRAINING
32 Townsend MS, Nitzke S, Contento I, McClelland J, Keenan D, Brown G. Using a theory driven approach to design a professional development workshop. J Nutrition Education & Behavior. 2003;35:312-318.
http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404606603461/abstract
Purpose: using behavior theory to design a workshop.
EVALUATION TOOLSThese following tools and Instruction Guides for administering the tools shown here are targeting low-income families
33 Sylva K, Townsend MS, Martin A, Metz D. University of California Food Behavior Checklist. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2006. (Visually enhanced food behavior checklist in 4 page booklet designed for clients with limited literacy skills, reflecting MyPryamid) Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
34 Townsend MS, Sylva K, Kai-Chao L. University of California Food Behavior Checklist: Supplement. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2006. (English, 6 additional items reflecting both MyPyramid and Food Guide Pyramid guidelines. Total 22 items prepared for the UCCE Plate Method Study by Body Weight and Health Workgroup members.) Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
35 Townsend MS, Davidson C, Leaven L, Metz D, Martin A. Administering the University of California Food Behavior Checklist with Supplemental Questions: Instruction Guide. University of California, Cooperative Extension, 2006. Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
36 Sylva K, Townsend MS, Martin A, Metz D. Food Stamp Program Food Behavior Checklist. Public Health Institute, California Department of Health, 2006. (English, 16 items reflecting the Food Guide Pyramid guidelines; Visually enhanced food behavior checklist in 4 page booklet designed for clients with limited literacy skills).

 

Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
37 Townsend MS, Davidson C, Leaven L, Metz D, Martin A. Administering the Food Stamp Program Food Behavior Checklist: Instruction Guide. Public Health Institute, California Department of Health Services, 2006.

 

Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
38 Sylva K, Townsend MS, Martin A, Metz D. Food Stamp Program Fruit and Vegetable Checklist. Public Health Institute, California Department of Health Services, 2006. (English, 7 items reflecting the Food Guide Pyramid guidelines).

 

Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
39 Townsend MS, Davidson C, Leaven L, Metz D, Martin A. Administering the Fruit & Vegetable Checklist: Interview Guide. Public Health Institute, California Department of Health Services, 2006.

 

Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
40 Townsend MS, Kaiser LL. University of California Fruit and Vegetable Inventory. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2006. (English, 13-item 2-page evaluation tool for low-income clients. Contains 6 constructs: perceived benefits to eating fruit & vegetables; perceived control; self-efficacy; readiness to eat more fruit; readiness to eat more vegetables; perceived diet quality.) Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
41 Townsend MS, Leaven L, Davidson C, Kaiser LL. Administering the Fruit and Vegetable Inventory: Instruction Guide. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2007.

 

Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/
42 Banna J, Townsend MS, Sylva K. Food Stamp Program Lista de habitos alimenticios (Food behavior checklist. Public Health Institute, California Department of Health, 2007. (Spanish, 16 items reflecting the Food Guide Pyramid guidelines; Visually enhanced food behavior checklist in 4 page booklet designed for clients with limited literacy skills.

 

The qualitative work for this tool is complete. The quantitative validation study is currently taking place. Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/

 

43 Banna J, Townsend MS, et al.. Administering the Food Stamp Program Lista de habitos alimenticios (Food behavior checklist). Instruction Guide. English & Spanish. Public Health Institute, California Department of Health Services, 2008.

 

44 Banna J, Townsend MS. University of California On the Go! [Physical activity (PA) assessment for low-income communities]. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2006. (English and Spanish, 19-item 12-page evaluation tool for low-income clients. Contains 5 constructs: transport PA; at home PA; spare time PA; sitting at home; and at work PA.

 

The qualitative work for this tool is complete. The tool is based on IPAQ (the International Physical Activity Questionnaire). The quantitative validation study is currently taking place. Available at http://townsendlab.ucdavis.edu/evaluation-research-tools/.
45 Banna J, Townsend MS, et al. Administering the University of California On the Go! [Physical activity (PA) assessment for low-income communities]. Instruction Guide. University of California Cooperative Extension, 2006. (English & Spanish. Contains 6 constructs: 2008.